Journal JFMSR

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC MEDICAL STUDIES AND RESEARCH (JFMSR), Volume 1, issue 1, 2018. ISSN 2601-9574 & ISSN-L 2601-9574 


About Journal JFMSR

The Journal of Forensic Medical Studies and Research publishes topical articles on all aspects of legal medicine. The medical principles of care and forensic assessment of living individuals, whether adult or child, in contact with the judicial system are examined and the Journal has a broad international perspective.

Topics covered in the journal include the following, particularly with relevance to the clinical setting: forensic medicine and psychiatry, including child abuse and neglect, interpersonal violence, elder abuse, domestic violence, sexual violence, suicidal behaviors, care in custody, restraint injuries, torture, and human rights; forensic pathology, death investigation and causes of death, including death in custody and suicide; forensic science, including the forensic aspects of toxicology, anthropology, and odontology.

All submitted manuscripts are reviewed initially by a JFMSR editor. Manuscripts are evaluated according to the following criteria: material is original and timely, writing is clear, primary and secondary objectives are explicitly stated, study methods are appropriate and described so that they can be understood and reproducible, data are valid, conclusions are reasonable and supported by the data, information is important, and topic is clinically relevant in forensic medicine. From these basic criteria, the editors assess a paper’s eligibility for publication. Manuscripts with insufficient priority for publication are rejected promptly. Other manuscripts are sent to expert consultants for peer review.

Under ISI indexing of: THOMSON REUTERS, EMBASE, MedLine, PubMed, SCOPUS, EBSCO Publishing’s Electronic Databases, SCIRUS, COPERNICUS. Journal Metrics: Cite Score: 0.00 (2018/soon); Impact Factor: 0.00 (2018/soon); 1-Year Impact Factor: 0.00 (2018/soon); Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP): 0.00 (2018/soon); SCI Mago Journal Rank (SJR): 0.00 (2018/soon); International Editorial Board (2018/soon).


Editor in chief

Associate Professor Dr. Costel Vasile SISERMAN MD, PhD, MSc, Iuliu Hațieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, România


Board of Editors

Forensic Medical

Professor Dr. Dan PERJU-DUMBRAVA, MD, PhD, Iuliu Hațieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, România

Professor Dr. Horea Vladi MATEI, MD, PhD, Iuliu Hațieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, România

Associate Professor Dr. Ștefan Mihai ANIȚAN, MD, PhD, Iuliu Hațieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, România

Associate Professor Dr. Codrin Rebeleanu, MD, PhD, Iuliu Hațieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, România

Associate Professor Dr. Ovidiu Sorin CHIROBAN, MD, PhD, Iuliu Hațieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, România

Assistant Professor Dr. Cristian Puiu GHERMAN, MD, PhD, Iuliu Hațieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, România

Assistant Professor Dr. Daniel URECHE MD, PhD, Iuliu Hațieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, România


Forensic psychiatry

Professor Dr. Ioana MICLUȚIA, MD, PhD, Iuliu Hațieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, România

Associate Professor Dr. Horia George Coman, MD, PhD, Iuliu Hațieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, România

Associate Professor Dr. Cătălina CRIȘAN, MD, PhD, Iuliu Hațieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, România

Dr. Antonela NICOARĂ, MD, PhD, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, România


Forensic psychology

Professor Dr. Camelia STANCIU, PhD, Dimitrie Cantemir University, România

Professor Dr. Eduard WATKINS, PhD, University of Texas at Austin, USA

Professor Dr. Loredana VÎȘCU, PhD, Tibiscus University, România

Associate Professor Dr. Andrea MÜLLER-FABIAN, PhD, Babeș-Bolyai University, România

Associate Professor Cristina BACIU, PhD, Babeș-Bolyai University, România

Assistant Professor Dr. Cristian DELCEA, PhD, Iuliu Hațieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, România


CONTENTS (abstracts)

Injuries of the right front seat passengers involved in car accidents in Cluj county during 2017-2018 winter

Dr. Emma SZIGYÁRTÓ, Dr. Dan PERJU-DUMBRAVĂ, Dr. Carmen-Corina RADU, Dr. Daniel-Ioan URECHE, Dr. Costel Vasile SISERMAN

Abstract: Several studies have shown the diversity of injuries suffered by the right front seat passengers involved in automobile accidents. The injury patterns have led to a more optimized design of the interior of the vehicles to ensure the safety of the occupants. The objective of this research is to describe the injury patterns from both fatalities and survived right seat passengers involved in car accidents occurred in the winter of 2017-2018 in Cluj county.

Key words: Injuries, car accidents, IML Cluj


The risk of suicide related to marital status

Dr.  Mirela Alexandra CĂLIN, Dr.  Harald JUNG

Abstract: Introduction: suicide has many determinants both social and individual. The pattern of lower suicide rates among married population due to increased social support was noticed in a majority of studies. Objective: we aim to determine gender specific and living area correlated suicide risk in different marital status categories. Material and method: we used data from the death certificates completed in suicide cases in Mures County (Romania) in the period 2013-2017 concerning age, gender, marital status and living area. We determined suicide rates for all groups based on population count. For two groups with high suicide risk we reviewed the interviews with relatives regarding motivation and suicide red flags prior to the act. Results: during the five years studied we found 491 completed suicides, the average age was 54.74, standard deviation – 17.76, with a male/female ratio of 6.8:1 and rural/urban ratio 1.7:1. The mean yearly suicide rate (per 100,000 population) was 17.8 (31.8 for men and 4.5 for women). In the group of married people we found close to the mean suicide rates, while single (never married) people had lower suicide rates (especially women – 2.23). Widowed men showed the highest rate of suicide (120) and the group of divorced also had higher rates (average rate of 39.8, and 70.7 in rural areas). Almost half of the interviewed relatives of widowed and divorced people declared behavioral changes within the last seven days before committing suicide. Conclusions: marriage was a neutral factor in relation to suicide risk in our group. Vulnerable persons (widowed men and divorced people in rural areas) should be targeted in suicide prevention strategies in order to minimize the risk factors generated by the lack of social and family support.

Key words: suicide, marital status, vulnerability


Effectiveness of booster seats compared to lack of restraint or seat belt alone in motor vehicle collisions: a systematic review and meta-analysis



Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Booster seats are designed specifically to protect children from injury or death in event of a vehicle collision. Often, these types of seats are purchased and fitted by consumers, but vehicle manufacturers can integrate them directly by design and generally are required to provide anchors for fixation and provide seat belt compatibility. Because motor vehicle collisions remain the leading cause of childhood injury and death across the US, the aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of booster seats in such situations compared to seat belt restraint or no restraint.

METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search of Pubmed and Embase through January 1st, 2018. We included articles for meta-analysis based on the following criteria: studies that included children between 0 and 12 years old; states in which child restraint systems are required by law.

RESULTS: Four studies were eligible for inclusion. Children restrained in booster seats had a 14.16% risk of injury compared to ones restrained in seat belts only, who had 21.86% risk and to unrestrained children who had a 40.79% chance to suffer injury in event of a motor vehicle collision.

CONCLUSIONS: Belt-positioning booster seats were associated with additional advantages compared to seat belts or lack of restraint in children through 12 years.

Specific injuries encountered to pedestrians involved in road accidents with 4×4 SUVs cars

Dr. Andrei-Vlad MATEI, Dr. Dan Perju-DUMBRAVĂ, Dr. Carmen-Corina RADU

Self-Enucleation in schizophrenia. Case raport

Dr. Cătălina CRIȘAN, Dr. Diana MERA

Abstract: Self-enucleation (oedipism) it’s a rare form of self-mutilation, which has been traditionally considered as a result of psycho-sexual conflicts. However, studies have shown that it is often associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or substance induced psychosis and less common with obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, mental retardation, structural brain lesions. In most cases described, self-mutilation involves one eye and rarely both. We report a case of a 38-year-old patient with a history of schizophrenia and alcohol dependence who gouged his eyes following the instructions from the voices he heard inside his head. On presentation, the patient presented enucleation of his right eye and evisceration of his left eye. The psychiatric exam revealed florid positive symptoms of schizophrenia (paranoid delusions of persecution, interpretation, influence, control, delusions of guilt, hyper religious delusions, imperative auditory hallucinations. Ophthalmological exam revealed orbital inflammation, edema, enucleation of his right eye and evisceration of his left eye, no light perception vision in both eyes. His injuries were repaired by a surgeon in the operating room. This case of bilateral oedipism is therefore exceptional. It is necessary to prevent any intracerebral complications induced by the traction exerted on the optic nerve, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage and it’s also imperious to make the patient adherent to antipsychotic medication, in order to prevent repeated attempts or other self-mutilatory behavior. The management of Oedipism requires close cooperation between ophthalmologists and psychiatrists.

Key words: self-enucleation, auto-mutilation, schizophrenia, hyper religiosity


Consent silence in Cyberbullying

Dr. Dana Balas TIMAR, Dr. Tiberiu DUGHI, Dr. Alina ROMAN, Dr. Sonia IGNAT, Dr. Cristian DELCEA

Abstract: Weather the silence of bystanders is consent or not in cyberbullying type incidents has risen a scientifically debate in the field of victim-aggressor-witness dynamics research. Silence implies consent represents a concept of social interaction, which generally states that people tend to assume lack of a response or opinion to an action as a tacit approval of that action. Our research team has developed the project Keeping youth safe from Cyberbullying, ID 2016-3-TR01-KA205-036619 aiming to deeper understand the dynamics of different cyberbullying aspects in online environments among youth. Our focus was in analyzing the relationship between consent silence, seen as a core concept in bystanders’ mindset and other psychological or behavioral traits like awareness, anonymity, fear, shame, school popularity and self-worth that fuel the tank of silence, in 140 high school students. Results show that consent silence represents the most significant predictor of future bystander type of response behavior when youth are directly or indirectly involved in cyberbullying incidents. Conclusions and implications are discussed.

Key words: cyberbullying, consent silence, bystanders, aggressor, victim


The Effect of Accidents on Dysfunctional Attitudes and Emotional Distress

Dr. Mihaela RUS, Dr. Dan Octavian RUSU, Dr. Dan PERJU-DUMBRAVĂ, Dr. Cristian OPARIUC –DAN, Dr. Cristian DELCEA

Abstract: Many literature researches highlighted the relationship between cognitions, attitudes and behavior who assessed the drivers’ attitude towards road traffic offenses, such as the others’ over-speeding, negligent driving and driving after consuming alcohol. The connection between changing attitudes and improving traffic safety concerns two important aspects: firstly, whether there is a causal relationship between attitudes and behavior, and secondly, whether and how the drivers’ attitudes can be influenced. In its theoretical section, this paper aims at presenting several relevant aspects regarding dysfunctional attitudes and the role played by emotions in traffic; in the applicative section, we conducted a comparative research on 224 drivers, i.e. women and men (112 participants had been involved in different road accidents and 112 subjects had never been involved in road accidents). The null hypothesis (h0) of this research states that the involvement in road accidents has no effect on dysfunctional attitudes and emotional distress. The alternative hypothesis assumes that the involvement in road accidents affects dysfunctional attitudes and emotional distress (h1).

Keywords: traffic safety, dysfunctional attitudes, emotions, accident, distress


Andrei-Vlad MATEI Dan Perju-DUMBRAVĂ, Carmen-Corina RADU

Abstract: Nowadays the carmakers are trying to make the cars as safe as possible, an easy job for their occupants, but from the pedestrian’s point of view this is becoming more and more difficult, especially given the increasing demands for Sports Utility Vehicles (SUVs). Although joint efforts are aimed at reducing the severity of injuries suffered by pedestrians in such an event, the injuries suffered by them are more severe and cause more serious injuries from a forensic point of view. We have carried out a retrospective study on 40 cases registered between 01.01.2017-31.12.2017 at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Cluj-Napoca regarding pedestrians as victims of road accidents involving 4×4 (four by four) / SUVs cars. From the total of 325 accidents involving pedestrians 40 accidents were produced by 4×4 / SUV, 25% were cases of death at the site or during the first days after the event, the cause of death was severe internal and external hemorrhage due to parenchymal dilaceration and open fractures of large bones, 5% died due to infectious complications due to prolonged admission to intensive care, 25% of deaths were caused by the impact of 4×4 cars produced before 2005,  28 patients suffered injuries and were evaluated for issuing a medical certificate. Lesions encountered in 80% of subjects were bruises, abrasions, hematomas, lacerations, head trauma, fractures of ribs, pelvis and femur. The topography of primary pedestrian injuries is predominantly in the upper half of the body, higher than that of injuries caused by small cars from sedan class. Topography of these lesions is predominantly abdominal, thoracic and cranial. The most serious injuries are the breakage of internal organs, closed and open fractures of the femoral neck and pelvis. Although injuries caused by SUVs to pedestrians are more severe, they are more rarely encountered, probably because the car is more visible, the driver’s position is higher and increases visibility and of course because these cars represent a smaller percentage of the car fleet. Serious injuries are mainly due to the larger mass of the car, the shape of the bonnet and grille that comes in contact with the pedestrian. Older cars and extensively modified ones produce the most severe injuries because they are often lifted and reinforced with bare metal in the front bumper area. New generation SUVs have not produced such severe injuries compared to older 4×4 cars.

Keywords: injuries, SUV, cars, pedestrians, lacerations, accidents, death.

Juvenile Delinquency in Light of Data Record at the Institute of Forensic Medicine

Dr. Andrea MÜLLER-FABIAN, Dr. Cristina BACIU, Dr. Cristian DELCEA

Abstract: Delinquency is a social mass phenomenon, encompassing individual behaviours that fall under the arm of the law. This research paper will use the idea of socio-psychological interdisciplinarity in order to draw a more complete picture of the data accumulated until now with regard to the risk factors of juvenile delinquency. We analysed 211 records of juvenile delinquents, available at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. We mention some of the outcomes of the research: the majority of juvenile offenders live in the urban areas where they committed the offences; usually they are males and aged between 15 and 16 years old at the time of wrongdoing; their preferred offence is theft, but also aggravated delicts such as rape, robbery, assault with bodily harm, etc. Amongst the underage youth subjected to research, some of them were recidivists, or struggled with behavioural disorders and/or poor schooling (even illiteracy). Although almost half of them come from nuclear families, they have to cope with insufficient material conditions (frequently below minimum means), insalubrious and overcrowded buildings, and often at least one convicted relative.

Keywords: factors of juvenile delinquency, forensic evaluation, delicts, socialisation, behaviour disorders


The Role of the family and the therapeutic relation in existential integrative psychotherapy for substance addicted person. A clinical approach

Dr. Loredana-Ileana VÎȘCU

Abstract: Psychotherapy for substances addicted persons represents a long and complex process, which is usually accompanied by medicinal treatment. The most used psychotherapeutic approach in this case is the cognitive-behavioural one. The purpose of this paper is to present sequences of existential integrative psychotherapy methods applied in different clinical cases, and the objectives proposed refer to underlining the family’s role or of other significant persons for these clients, during the recovery process and the analysis of existential concerns based on the co-created therapeutic relation. From an ethical point of view, the clients’ accept was previously obtained in order to present sequences of their therapeutic processes, one of the clients becoming actively involved in reminding and presenting problems faced during the last years, as a drugs consumer (cocaine, ethno-botanical substances).

The role of the family and of the therapeutic relation in the activating and controlling of clients’ resources is presented for four clinical cases: XJ’s case (23 years old, male, student abroad, treated during the year 2012), AB’s case (18 years old, male, former sports national champion, treated during the period 2012-2013), CD’s case (27 years old female, architect, treated in 2015, and who returned to therapy in 2018) and EF’s case (24 years old male, treated in 2015 and returned to therapy in 2017). The results and conclusions for each case underline the family’s role, or that of a close friend in the support offered to the client during the withdrawal period. With the family’s involvement in the psychotherapeutic process, a reframing of problems is allowed, or even the solving of family problems. The psychotherapeutic relation is the guide during the client’s return to the world, it represents a safety net each time the client considers his/her resources are limited or exhausted. These clients learn that sometimes a complete “healing” doesn’t exist, that risk is already a part of them. The client’s role is that of managing this risk of relapse. Psychotherapy represents an open process and somewhere, in the network of social relations, the client knows there is a person willing to build something in the citadel of his/her soul – “I have my therapist”.

Keywords: substance addiction, existential integrative approach, family role, therapeutic relation.


Ad terror as a means of evoking negative emotions and Change of Attitude

Cristian Delcea Costel SISERMAN


Abstract: Ad terror means spreading fear among a population through acts of violence that deliberately generate terror, fright, dread and are meant to make publicity for the terrorists` purposes. (Law no.535/2004) Reality shows us that mass media has become a sine qua non condition for terrorist acts, as means of mastering and paralyzing with fear the masses through psychological coercion and criminal intimidation. More often than not, if publicity is missing terrorist acts are not as efficient and cannot function.  Using as a starting point the studies on ad terror conducted along the years by researchers (Chermak, 2003; Delcea, 2004) we took a critical approach on statements and theories on ad terror. As a result of this analysis we made an experiment in order to capture the negative emotional effect on the public as a media consumer and the cognitive and behaviour dysfunctionalities as provoked by advertised terror in the media.

Key-words: ad terror, behavior and cognitive aspects, advertising, terrorism.

The management of police activities that determine the circumstances and identifying the suspects of murder

Mohammad Jaradat

Abstract: When dealing with a criminal offence such as murder, it is absolutely necessary that the police activities carried out in question be managed in a certain way, under the direction of prosecutors, but those who actually carry out their activities, criminal investigation bodies, more specifically, police officers must be guided and have minimal knowledge of the order and importance of each step taken in the investigation. The article will therefore follow the management of the above-mentioned process, as the operational order (process management) that ensures the effectiveness of combating homicide crimes. This article focuses on processes mainly conducted around two operations: crime scene research and forensic examination of the corpse. The process itself is a much more complex one and, irrespective of the criminal law we are referring to, the methodologists have to follow the same steps.

Keywords: crime scene research, forensic expertise, suspect, measures, processes




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